This semester I explored concepts and practices relating to instructional design and emerging technologies. I created a virtual world simulation that integrated these practices and incorporated the design skills learned during the course. I also created an ePortfolio for my professional work and virtual world simulation environment.
Multiverse Simulation Masters is a 3d simulation and proof of concept curriculum, based in a virtually immersive learning environment. Simulations are intended to help the user experience through immersive technology an event, a place, or a role that they are not able to in a real-world scenario. (Nelson, 2013).
The Ability Sim encourages students to explore and observe, talk to characters that are scripted with random reactions, and complete tasks to experience a scenario that they may not otherwise encounter in real life. During this process students can discuss and reflect upon decisions they make, reactions they encounter, and problem solve obstacles to determine changes that could be made to improve the situation.
The story line adds an emotional layer and the prompts address issues such as privacy and safety to encourage a change in perspective and empathy. The goal of this simulation was to add to the knowledge base of how students can be supported to learn using virtual world technology. This simulation example provides virtual world educators with insight into how virtual worlds can be used for teaching and learning (Bakker, 2018).
The effectiveness of using simulations in virtual worlds to impact social change.
Articles in academic journals are explored to determine the effectiveness of simulations and role play in virtual world settings in their ability to impact changes in awareness and empathy towards differences in ability. A current study where the author was able to identify the impact a virtual world simulation had in changing attitudes and perceptions using virtual world role play whereas the participants took on the role of an avatar to empathize with the personal and emotional experiences of that avatar was conducted by Tiffany, and Hoglund in 2016. Other than this specific study, the search parameters of social change, simulation, and virtual world, in academic journals in the field of education did not yield results specifically related to increasing awareness and empathy in the participant to encourage real-world social change
Research has been conducted on similar subjects, such as the general effectiveness and impact on learning using virtual world simulations. Searching those terms in the One Search ESC library database resulted in 2,287 hits in the educational category for academic journals. Research also supports that personality is impacted by the virtual world and that the virtual world experiences impact real-life changes ( McLeod, P. L., Liu, Y.-C., & Axline, J. E, 2014). This literature review seeks to evaluate whether available research supports the goal of determining if the outcomes of learning in virtual environments through simulations have a lasting impact on personality changes, specific to an increase in empathy toward individuals with different abilities.
Research selection and definitions:
Academic articles were researched that address the social interactions, associated benefits and risks, and the community and personality development as it relates to virtual worlds. Research has shown that learning is a social process (Veletsianos and Navarrete, 2012). This research is essential in understanding the underpinnings of the educational uses and effectiveness of virtual worlds in learning outcomes (Dunleavy, M., Dede, C., & Mitchell, R.2009, Kramer, S. 2010, Lerner, J. E. 2016, Merchant, Z., Goetz, E. T., Cifuentes, L., Keeney-Kennicutt, W., & Davis, T. J. 2014, Mon, L. 2010). Research specifically studying online virtual worlds and the theory that positive social change and an increase in empathy and awareness can be accomplished using simulations and role play in immersive virtual world environments has been conducted (Tiffany, and Hoglund, 2016). Simulations are intended to help the user experience through immersive technology an event, a place, or a role that they are not able to in a real-world scenario. (Nelson, 2013, Dunleavy, M., Dede, C., & Mitchell, R., 2009). Historical understanding is also essential therefor research was included to give a basis of understanding concerning the overall effectiveness of teaching and learning in virtual worlds. For the use of this literature review “virtual world” can be defined as the definition of an online virtual world is a 3D multi-user environment with user-generated content. It is also defined as an online, computer based, and browser based virtual reality platform (Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. 2010).
According to Merchant, Goetz, Cifuentes, Keeney-Kennicutt, & Davis, immersive virtual reality has been in existence for almost sixty years beginning in the1960’s. (2014). The use of online virtual worlds increased in the beginning of the 21st century with private and educational institutions contributing to and creating virtual interactions for science-based simulations, such as virtual dissection and virtual museum simulations (Merchant, Goetz, Cifuentes, Keeney-Kennicutt, & Davis, 2014). Social change through the use of virtual worlds to impact personality through avatar identity has only recently been studied (Barton-Arwood, S., Lunsford, L., & Suddeth, S. W. 2016, Kuznetcova, I., Teeple, J., & Glassman, M. 2018, Tiffany, J., & Hoglund, B. 2016, Triberti, S., Durosini, I., Aschieri, F., Villani, D., & Riva, G. 2017).
Historical studies have shown that the use of simulations in real-world applications is very effective in changing attitudes and increasing awareness and empathy toward people with disabilities. (Goddard, Jordan, 1998). These studies however were not based on virtual world environments.
Online virtual worlds have historically based their foundations on “…interactive entertainment products and services” (Linden Research, Inc., 2017, para 2). This has influenced the overall public perception of virtual worlds as an adult themed virtual playground (Carver, L. B. 2016). Educational virtual worlds are usually privatized by educational institutions. Historically they have been limited to concrete concepts and facts rather than challenging social perceptions and attitudes. (Dunleavy, M., Dede, C., & Mitchell, R. 2009, Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. 2010, Lerner, J. E. 2016, Michele D. Dickey. 2011, Roussou, M. 2002). In the history of virtual worlds however, they have long been used for simulations and role playing in educational and learning goals (Dunleavy, M., Dede, C., & Mitchell, R. 2009, Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. 2010, Lerner, J. E. 2016).
Research articles explore the design of virtual worlds for various uses of educational applications and techniques. (Carver, L. B. 2016, Dunleavy, M., Dede, C., & Mitchell, R. 2009, Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. 2010, Kramer, S. 2010) Narrowing the research specifically to simulations in virtual worlds and social change in One Search ESC library database using the key word of simulation, virtual world, and social change resulted in 536 hits. Narrowed down to the field of education brought the search results down to 87. Limiting this further to academic journals revealed 41 potential articles on these topics, of these only 2 were directly relevant to this research topic, addressing social change in perceptions, personality, or empathy through the use of simulations in virtual worlds. (Tzemopoulos, A. 2014, Zielke, M., Roome, T., & Krueger, A. 2009). These studies were done on the impact of personality and real-world changes in these online communities whereas the participant has direct influence over their avatar choice and interactions. In the role play and simulation study for social education Tiffany and Hogland discuss the impact that can be accomplished by preset avatar identities and activities not directly controlled by the participant.
In virtual worlds, as an avatar, people can explore different environments and roles. (Kuznetcova, I., Teeple, J., & Glassman, M. 2018, Tiffany, J., & Hoglund, B. 2016, Kuznetcova, I., Teeple, J., & Glassman, M. 2018, Lerner, J. E. 2016, Merchant, Z., Goetz, E. T., Cifuentes, L., Keeney-Kennicutt, W., & Davis, T. J. 2014, Michele D. Dickey. 2011, Mon, L. 2010, Roussou, M. 2002, Tiffany, J., & Hoglund, B.2016). Avatar identity studies, have also been conducted, however research has not been focused on the potential influence on real world changes in understanding through simulations. Instead these studies have focused on avatar development and the development of a virtual community online (Triberti, S., Durosini, I., Aschieri, F., Villani, D., & Riva, G. 2017, Tzemopoulos, A. 2014). Groups of professionals and individuals network within these online virtual worlds creating virtual communities that offer social support and resources.
According to research learning based simulations have been used for combined synchronous and asynchronous educational goals. (Gregory, Sue, 2012) A virtual world simulation is beneficial because of the “unique affordances that it offers in enhancing learners’ cognitive skills” (Merchant et al., 2014, para. 6). Participants use avatar identity to connect themselves or who they wish to be, with the virtual world and virtual community(Kuznetcova, I., Teeple, J., & Glassman, M. 2018, McLeod, P. L., Liu, Y.-C., & Axline, J. E. 2014, Triberti, S., Durosini, I., Aschieri, F., Villani, D., & Riva, G. 2017, Tzemopoulos, A. 2014). This emotional connection to avatar identity is useful in allowing participants to experience avatar identities that they would not otherwise experience in the virtual world and to transfer that emotional awareness and knowledge gained by the experience into real world applications and empathy (Tiffany, and Hoglund, 2016). This is also because research supports the effectiveness of learning in immersive virtual world simulations in general “The contemporary notion of learning environments recognizes that meaningful, active learning takes place in complex, multi-model environments in which the learner plays an active role in constructing knowledge” (Dickey, 2011, p.2).
The research explored was based on standard educational pedagogues and transferred to the virtual world concept through generalization. “Established adult learning theories have been transferred to teaching in the VW where normal pedagogical practices have continued. No new theories have emerged and researchers have been adapting current theories to fit into the framework of their teaching scenarios.”(Lerner, 2012, p.3) Generalizing research that is non-specific has disadvantages, however may be necessary given the limited amount of current specific research. This is due to the fact that drawing conclusions from limited sources holds the same disadvantage (Hew and Cheung, 2010).
According to recent studies that were more specific towards the ability of virtual world simulations to change perceptions and attitudes in real world applications, “Students indicated that they increased their own capacity to understand, appreciate, and relate to people different from themselves” (Tiffany, and Hoglund , 2016 p.1) Other research indicated that the success of influence is directly related to the personality of the participant (Triberti, S., Durosini, I., Aschieri, F., Villani, D., & Riva, G. 2017). Students who are open to change and engaged in the learning process responded more positively to virtual world role play of more complex social scenarios. “Research has indicated that technology can increase student motivation, attitude, engagement and self-confidence, while improving organization and study skills” (Carver, 2016, p.110). This open attitude to new experience is essential. According to research, simulations have also been more successful to learning due to the level of safety and anonymity that the virtual world offers. “Simulations are often used for learning in a VW so that students can experience doing things that are impossible to do in a real world.” (Lerner, 2012, p.3).
Studies have also shown that communication is essential in teaching and learning (Hew & Cheung, 2010, Veletsianos, G. & Navarrete, C. C. 2012). The virtual world is an immersive environment for role play and simulation due to its various platforms for communication. “Communication in virtual world can take both verbal and nonverbal forms” (Hew & Cheung, 2010, p. 36). Auditory input and output, in-world animations and written text chat are the primary forms of real time person to person communication in world, while text on signs, note cards, audio and visual input through video, music, websites and links, and visual display of objects are communications used on an individual basis and not dependent on live person to person communication (Hew & Cheung, 2010).This helps expand the use of role play and simulation design beyond social interaction, community involvement, or networking. This also complicates conclusions based on research that was conducted using virtual community interaction and person to person (or avatar to avatar) relationships since it is based on the individual’s personal reflections ((Hew and Cheung, 2010, Tiffany, J., & Hoglund, B. 2016).
Aside from community and social interaction, research conducted showed that “transformative learning whereby students reflect and then act on this reflection” (Lerner, 2012, p 7) was successful in increasing the potential for learning. This supports the possibility that independent roleplay and simulations may be effective in achieving learning goals. According to Mcleod, arousal of emotion is needed to establish empathy. The visual build and simulation environment increases immersion thus increasing the emotional impact on the participant. In addition, the personal identity created by the relationship between the participant and their avatar brings in an additional emotional factor to the experience (Kuznetcova, I., Teeple, J., & Glassman, M. 2018). Openness to new experiences has also been identified as essential in initiating change in behaviors (McLeod, P. L., Liu, Y.-C., & Axline, J. E., 2014). Studies suggest that the effectiveness of virtual worlds is directly related to the personality traits of participants, and in how engaged they are in the experience, more than the presentation of the environment or information (Barton-Arwood, S., Lunsford, L., & Suddeth, S. W. 2016, Carver, L. B. 2016 Roussou, M. 2002).
One article addressed increasing empathy through a virtual game (Sterkenburg, P. S., & Vacaru, V. S. 2018). Several articles address virtual simulations and their benefits (Dunleavy, M., Dede, C., & Mitchell, R. 2009, Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S.,2010 Lerner, J. E. 2016). The challenge is finding research to support the impact on the individual participants social perceptions, awareness and empathy as it transfers from virtual world experiences to real world social change beyond the research done by Tiffany & Hoglund in 2016.
Social and emotional learning can be assessed through retrospective and participant reporting data. The research I reviewed concerning social change and increased empathy was based on participant surveys which can weaken the conclusions derived by the study. “A general problem of studies based on self-reported data is that participants usually have correct notions about socially desirable answers” (Hew and Cheung, 2010, p 44) Other that the study done by Tiffany & Hogland in 2016, research on avatar identity has been conducted only in so much as the participants chosen avatar identity influences real world perceptions (Kuznetcova, I., Teeple, J., & Glassman, M. 2018, except for the research conducted by Tiffany & Hoglund in 2016, Triberti, S., Durosini, I., Aschieri, F., Villani, D., & Riva, G. 2017, Tzemopoulos, A. 2014, Zielke, M., Roome, T., & Krueger, A. 2009).
Virtual worlds are often used for simulations and experiential spaces however based on search results, most research is in the media arts and health and environment disciplines. (Barton-Arwood, S., Lunsford, L., & Suddeth, S. W. 2016, Goddard L, & Jordan L. 1998, McLeod, P. L., Liu, Y.-C., & Axline, J. E. 2014, Smith, M. J. 2016, Sterkenburg, P. S., & Vacaru, V. S. 2018). Appling these outcomes to the field of education and social change context weakens the conclusion since specific research using the search parameters of simulation, virtual world, and social change in the field of education were limited.
Research articles that address the topic in part, adds to the overall body of knowledge about learning in virtual world simulations, however only two articles specifically addressed outcomes based on changes in awareness, or empathy needed to impact individual personality or social change (Sterkenburg, P. S., & Vacaru, V. S. 2018, Tiffany, and Hoglund, 2016).
More studies need to be completed on whether the avatar identity used in simulations or role play that has not been developed by the participant can have the same impact on perceptions of the participants in real world applications such as the one done by Tiffany & Hoglund in 2016. In addition, more studies need to be done on the impact of role playing in virtual worlds on the perceptions of participants. Even if studies show that immersive virtual world simulations can change perceptions, studies also need to be done on how changes in perception impacts behavior.
Application of Learning Outcomes
Students learn through actionable knowledge. “Knowledge about which actions under what circumstances will lead to which kinds of intended consequences” (Bakker 2018, p.47).. I applied this to my simulation in the virtual world by adding choices and outcomes to the simulation. This increased the replication of real life situations and added a situated learning aspect to the exorcise. An important aspect of situated learning is experiencing and applying the learning and receiving feedback during the learning (Nelson and Erlandson, 2013, p, 63) In the virtual world I incorporated this feedback through scripted non-player character s(NPC)
According to Chickering and Gamson in the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education, prompt feedback is essential in the promotion of learning therefor scripting the simulation to give the student choices rather than simply dictate a story line created greater impact. What Nelson and Erlandson refer to as situated learning is like what Jonassen (1994) refers to as Constructivist learning environments. I applied these concepts to my simulation by enabling the student to draw their own conclusions rather than simply observe the conclusion of another party. (“Education_Theory/Constructivism_and_Social_Constructivism”, 2018 ) I applied these theories to create a Constructivist learning environment that allows the interactions and choices of the participant to impact the outcomes of the story line and allowed the participant to experience a simulation of real world consequences and outcomes.
Assessment Learning Objectives
I used Formative Assessment as an option for facilitators to include a self-assessment prior to completing the simulation of the participants understanding of how differences may be perceived and worked with in the story line provided. This can be compared to the follow up self-assessment at the end of the ability simulation.
I used Summative Assessment as an option for facilitators to include the completion of tasks, and the posting of possible changes that might improve the situation portrayed within the simulation. These writing prompts can be submitted in-world or through another avenue that the facilitator chooses. In addition, the simulation provides a place for live class discussions and meetings, additional support material distribution and presentations.
Participants experience a perspective contained inside a story line to increase their empathy and understanding for people who are different from themselves. Participants are provided with the ability to discuss with each other or reflect independently, reactions to the story line, as well as provide feedback or formulate their own opinions concerning the story line. Participants are given the opportunity to observe, and problem solve the physical and emotional as well as social implications and barriers to problem solve independently or as a group, possible improvement that could be made in a similar scenario.
Participants experience a role play scenario and 3-d simulation. Participants observe and discuss/share reactions to mobile ability. Participants observe, and discuss/share reactions and challenges faced, concerning the completion of tasks (quests). Participants observe and discuss/share emotional reactions to the role play scenario/back story. Participants learn technology tools to interact in the virtual world environment. Participants learn avatar controls. Participants have the option of learning screen capture controls, video tools, and other technological communication options for assignment and evaluation purposes.
Ability Simulation Rubric
The participant will post prior to the simulation activity, a reflective post concerning the story line and what they believe they will experience in the different roles. The participant will then participate in the simulation. The participant will post the outcome of each task, the decision made and reaction to the simulation scenarios. Participant will have responded to the post of a classmates. The participant will create a reaction post either through video or screen shots expressing their personal observations at the completion of the simulation. Participants will respond to another classmate’s reaction post. Percentages of grades and additional assignments will be determined by the facilitator. The Ability Simulation is designed to be an example that can be adapted by the facilitator in assignments and resources.
Evaluating learning outcomes:
The simulation included examples of ways that the participants can give feedback, participate in discussions and show proof of knowledge without building the back end supports for this proof of concept. As an example, supportive learning platforms for evaluation may be live or virtual meetings and discussions, blog posts, collecting and responding to note cards and note card drop off points, creating video responses or various other complimentary assignments that the instructor chooses.
Evidence of technology skills
I demonstrated the use of several technology tools by using screencastomatic to create videos, upload them to YouTube and link them to wopoli.com. These videos can be played within the virtual world environment. I used a storyboard tool, wordpress.com, created slideshows and pdfs and assembled these resources on wopoli.com, all of which can be presented within the virtual world environment. In addition, I adapted OSSL scripts and built the simulation within the virtual world in addition to learning supports within the virtual world. Scripting allows for tracking of who visits the virtual Island, and how long they visit for. Notecard drop boxes are one way of collecting student responses and assignments from within the virtual world. .
Using IST standards for educators
The Ability Simulation was created to be adaptable by the participant in avatar appearance and choice of roles. Settings are personalized using the participants avatar name in the scripted non-player characters responses. Assignments can be personalized by the participants or the facilitator to foster independent learning and accommodate learner preferences and needs. Facilitation options include learning goals and activities in both independent and group settings to solve problems. Assignments can be submitted in various ways to communicate ideas and make connections.
Using IST standards for students
The Ability Simulation was designed so that student options include working others as well as the ability to customize the learning environment. Using technology students receive feedback and are able to demonstrate learning through a variety of options like video or screen shots in the creation of their own reflective observations. The goal of the Simulation is to encourage a shared understanding, expose the student to multiple viewpoints, and allow them to assume various roles and responsibilities to work effectively in investigating solutions.
Instructional Design, Theories and Practices
Consistency in design was used to create a realistic simulation. Maintaining a consistent design in a virtual world setting can be challenging but is essential. (Nelson and Erlandson, 2012). Design research and action research theories were used to develop and communicate to others the focus and goals in my curriculum development. My goal was to have students learn through actionable knowledge. “Knowledge about which actions under what circumstances will lead to which kinds of intended consequences” (Bakker 2018, p.47). This is based on experimentation and simulations in real world environment and is easily applied to virtual world environments. I applied this to my simulation in the virtual world by adding choices and outcomes to the simulation. This increased the replication of real life situations and added a situated learning aspect to the exorcise.
I used situated learning within the virtual world context in that my design and story line looks and acts like a real-world situation and can be applied to the real-world problems. In this simulation the design for instruction performs like real world interactions and allows for real world unpredictability and choices. In this way the virtual experience mimics what the student might witness in the real world within the context of the simulations story line. An important aspect of situated learning is experiencing and applying the learning and receiving feedback during the learning (Nelson and Erlandson, 2013, p, 63)
In a real-world scenario this feedback might come from an instructor or a peer. In the virtual world this feedback can come from a scripted non-player character (NPC) According to Chickering and Gamson in the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education, prompt feedback is essential in the promotion of learning therefor scripting the simulation to give the student choices rather than simply dictate a story line will create greater impact. What Nelson and Erlandson refer to as situated learning is like what Jonassen (1994) refers to as Constructivist learning environments. These environments do not rely on the simplification of topics and are more reflective of real world intricacy. In a well-designed simulation the student will be able to draw their own conclusions rather than simply observe the conclusion of another party. (“Education_Theory/Constructivism_and_Social_Constructivism”, 2018 ) By creating a Constructivist learning environment I allowed the interactions and choices of the participant to impact the outcomes of the story line and the participant experienced a simulation of real world consequences and outcomes.
Wopoli.com is a public website. For the sake of transparency please be aware that all comments, once accepted are also made public. This site may be viewed by children. All posts will be monitored and content that is not family-friendly will be blocked. No personal information is collected by myself or shared with others unless you or a child of yours is a student I am working with. Please be aware if you choose to sign into WordPress as a registered member, they have their own policies and it is your responsibility to research these policies. Viewing the site does not require a WordPress subscription.
Wopoli.com has been designed as a learning resource environment. When I make available research-based methodology, proper citations will be included. It is my goal to adhere to copyright and attribute material to the original authors. Please respect copyright and attribute any resources you post to the author as well.
I have been teaching for over twenty years as a parent and for private institutions. I am not currently certified in any state as a teacher. I have an associate degree in Creative Marketing and a bachelor’s degree in Media Communications. Many posts were created to fulfill educational requirements for my master’s degree in Learning in Emerging Technologies, and my certificate for Teaching in Emerging Technologies through Empire State College, part of the SUNY network. Much of my work is also based on personal experience and exploration and serves as examples to guide others.
Wopoli.com is an access point for my student(s) and is made public to specifically provide examples and resources for other parents and educators. Wopoli.com has curriculum examples that have self-guided as well as guided activities. The lessons are intended to be adaptable or serve as examples and may not be appropriate for all ages or students. This environment maps out expectations in the formulation of achievable goals and motivational rewards through participation in virtual environments.
It is my goal when using technology as a teaching and learning tool to help students and educators understand how emerging technologies can enrich the learning experience for younger students and help achieve future student success in the real world of higher education, employment, or life goals. It is also essential to educate on the risks and best practices for online safety by exploring and sharing resources. It is also important to educate other adults within my network to the process involved as well as the reasoning behind the methodologies that I am incorporating on this site and companion sites. Please use the resources provided as well as your own inquiries to educate yourself concerning the benefits and risks involved with new technologies, especially when working with children.
Examples of companion sites and resources are included in the site such as YouTube, virtual world viewers, other blog sites and other educational websites. My use and recommendations of these sites are based upon my own research, experience and opinion. Please independently research these sites, their privacy policies and security practices before using them with your students.
As you note, Multiverse Masters, is an evolving adventure-based world for education that you have created to be appropriate and beneficial for younger audiences in the virtual environment. I have to say as a beginner working in virtual environments, Multiverse is fantastic for a user at my level. It is very detailed and easy to follow with key tips on how to function and move around in the world. When entering, I could appreciate the size of the space and how you clearly noted which way to move with arrows and descriptive titles for each room.
My first stop was The Camera Shop. I was able to try everything noted which was fun and informative. My only call out was Camera Control Snapshots. The slide notes “You can take pictures by pressing the camera button on the left side of the screen”. For whatever reason, my camera button is actually located at the bottom right side of the screen. It’s great that you have the camera icon button so I knew what to look for. Perhaps adding a note that the user should make sure to look for the icon anywhere on their toolbar as it may not always appear on the upper left hand side.
Next The Movement. The room itself was so comfortable I took a seat on the couch near the fireplace and even sat down to play the piano before starting to try out the tools. The step by step directions were so helpful and straight to the point I believe I will remember how to do them a bit easier than reading from a textbook. I spent a great deal of time in this room because there was a lot to do and I didn’t feel overwhelmed at all.
Virtual Comms and the Inventory Lodge were both exceptional rooms as well. I took a leap upstairs and was so intrigued by the AvaStore, Hair Salon and Footwear Store. So much fun especially for this audience to come in and learn at the same time.
I appreciated the young lady in the wheelchair near the information simulation booth but I wasn’t sure what to do at that particular spot. I did hit the Thank You button at the Information Desk and got a response back which was fantastic. I also teleported to the train station which gave the world even more life with people and sound. The last function I tried but couldn’t figure out was leaving a note in the mailbox.
I can’t express enough how fantastic this world is. The level of audience engagement and influence this would have in education is phenomenal.
Peer Review response
I learned from this peer review how easily overwhelmed and distracted a participant can be when entering a virtual world environment. Because I chose to use this environment for several virtual explorations and development, the path to the specific simulation was not clear. Due to this,the peer reviewer did not make it to the actual ability simulation and instead evaluated the supports and prompts leading up to the simulation. If I were presenting this simulation as a facilitator I would need to consolidate the simulation into one area for ease of use.
Though simulations have been one of the longest standing uses for virtual worlds, a true simulation requires much more than simply building the environment. I have successfully created an immersive story line and lesson plan activities using traditional learning theories and designs and applying them to this non-traditional learning environment. Although the virtual world has been in existence for decades, it remains an experimental platform for education with little direct study to entice educators into moving beyond traditional approaches that are easier for them. Including assessments and evaluations that demonstrate the benefits of the virtual world environment is essential in getting traditional educators willing to explore this emerging and immersive technology as an educational option. This is enforced in research that draws the conclusion that, “… good assessment (based on valid inferences) is of utmost importance for virtual worlds due to the fact that virtual worlds are as yet unproven as a better platform for learning in a majority of subject domains over existing approaches” (p. 97, 2012). Using the framework learned in this course will help me design future virtual worlds based on solid educational practices.
Bakker, A. (2018). Design research in education: A practical guide for early career researchers. London, UK: Routledge
Barton-Arwood, S., Lunsford, L., & Suddeth, S. W. (2016). University-Community Partnerships in Teacher Preparation: Changing Attitudes about Students with Disabilities. Journal of Public Scholarship in Higher Education, 6, 4–20. Retrieved from http://library.esc.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1123802&site=eds-live
Carver, L. B. (2016). Teacher Perception of Barriers and Benefits in K-12 Technology Usage. Turkish Online Journal Of Educational Technology – TOJET, 15(1), 110-116. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1086185
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Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. (2010). Use of three-dimensional (3-D) immersive virtual worlds in K-12 and higher education settings: A review of the research. British Journal of Educational Technology, (1), 33. Retrieved from http://library.esc.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgao&AN=edsgcl.214874403&site=eds-live
Iste standards for educators. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.iste.org/standards/for-educators
Iste standards for students. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.iste.org/standards/for-students
Kramer, S. (2010). Teaching in Virtual Worlds: A Qualitative Case Study. ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Walden University. 416 Pp., 416. Retrieved from http://gateway.proquest.com.library.esc.edu/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation&res_dat=xri:pqdiss&rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:3404847
Kuznetcova, I., Teeple, J., & Glassman, M. (2018). The dialectic of the avatar: Developing in-world identities in Second Life. Journal of Gaming & Virtual Worlds, 10(1), 59–71. https://doi.org/10.1386/jgvw.10.1.59_1
Lerner, J. E. (2016). Learning in Virtual Worlds: Research and Applications. American Journal of Distance Education, 30(4), 282–283. https://doi-org.library.esc.edu/10.1080/08923647.2016.1232562
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